- 1969 - 1977 a member of the NSC staff and Special Assistant to Dr. Henry Kissinger.
- January 1977 - March 1983 fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
- April 1984 - March 1986 Director of the State Department Policy Planning Staff.
- March 1986 - January 1987 Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs.
- 1987-1990 Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs as well as NSC Counselor.
- 1991-1999 senior editor of National Review
- 1995-2001 Director of National Security Programs at The Nixon Center for Peace and Freedom.
- July 16, 2001 - March 2007 Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs.
- March 5, 2007 - ? Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution
- One of the original signers to the 1997 Statement of Principles by the neoconservative "think tank," Project for the New American Century.
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